Covid-19 or Coronavirus disease-2019, caused by the novel Coronavirus (SARS CoV-2), continues to be a major global public health crisis. There is no specific drug for its treatment and no immunity against the virus. Allowing herd immunity to develop naturally would add to the already high morbidity and mortality and it may take many years. But, the speed with which the virus is spreading leaves us with no choice but to have a vaccine, or at least an emergency-use vaccine ready for use, at the earliest. There are frantic efforts across the world to develop a vaccine. Different approaches such as inactivated and attenuated vaccines, viral vector-based vaccines and DNA- and RNA-based vaccines are being studied. Many vaccines have shown promise in preclinical studies; many have completed or are in phase 1 trials. A safe and effective vaccine against Covid-19 is eagerly awaited. But, even when a vaccine is available, public health measures such as personal hygiene, social distancing, will be equally important to reduce disease transmission. In this article, we give a brief overview of the types of vaccines and the various vaccine initiatives around the world.
Covid-19 coronavirus pandemic. Available at: https://www.worldometers.info/coronavirus/#countries, Accessed May 21, 2020.
Paudel S, Dangal G, Chalise A, et al. The Coronavirus pandemic: what does the evidence show? J Nepal Health Res Counc. 2020;18(1):1-9.
Gandhi M, Yokoe DS, Havlir DV. Asymptomatic transmission, the Achilles' heel of current strategies to control Covid-19. N Engl J Med. 2020 Apr 24. [Epub ahead of print]
Meissner HC. Why is herd immunity so important? AAP News May 2015;36(5):14.
Fine P, Eames K, Heymann DL. "Herd immunity": a rough guide. Clin Infect Dis. 2011;52(7):911-6.
Herd immunity. Available at: https://www.gavi.org/vaccineswork/what-herd-immunity, Accessed May 15, 2020.
"Immunity passports" in the context of COVID-19 Scientific Brief, 24 April 2020. Available at: https://www.who.int/news-room/commentaries/detail/immunity-passports-in-the-context-of-covid-19, Accessed May 17, 2020.
Chandrashekar A, Liu J, Martinot AJ, et al. SARS-CoV-2 infection protects against rechallenge in rhesus macaques. Science. 20 May 2020.
Yu J, Tostanoski LH, Peter L. DNA vaccine protection against SARS-CoV-2 in rhesus macaques. Science 20 May 2020.
Dertzbauch MT. Genetically engineered vaccines: An overview. Plasmid. 1998;39(2):100-13.
Tahamtan A, Charostad J, Hoseini Shokouh SJ, et al. An overview of history, evolution, and manufacturing of various generations of vaccines. J Arch Mil Med. 2017; 5(3):e12315.
Coronavirus vaccine. Available at: https://www.sinobiological.com/research/virus/coronavirus-vaccine.
Chen Y, Chen L, Deng Q, et al. The presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the feces of COVID-19 patients. J Med Virol. 2020 Apr 3.
Vaccine safety basics e-learning course, WHO. Available at: https://vaccine-safety-training.org/inactivated-whole-cell-vaccines.html, Accessed May 17, 2020.
COVID-19 (coronavirus) vaccine: Get the facts. Available at: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/coronavirus/in-depth/coronavirus-vaccine/art-20484859, Accessed May 17, 2020.
Rauch S, Jasny E, Schmidt KE, et al. New vaccine technologies to combat outbreak situations. Front Immunol. 2018;9:196.
Manis JP. Overview of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. Available at: https://www.uptodate.com/contents/overview-of-therapeutic-monoclonal-antibodies.
Uddin M, Mustafa F, Rizvi TA, et al. SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19: Viral genomics, epidemiology, vaccines, and therapeutic interventions. Viruses. 2020 May 10;12(5).
Du L, He Y, Zhou Y, et al. The spike protein of SARS-CoV--a target for vaccine and therapeutic development. Nat Rev Microbiol. 2009;7(3):226-36.
Moderna announces positive interim phase 1 data for its mRNA vaccine (mRNA-1273) against novel coronavirus, May 18, 2020. Available at: https://investors.modernatx.com/news-releases/news-release-details/moderna-announces-positive-interim-phase-1-data-its-mrna-vaccine.
Novavax identifies coronavirus vaccine candidate; accelerates initiation of first-in-human trial to mid-May. April 08, 2020. Available at: https://ir.novavax.com/news-releases/news-release-details/novavax-identifies-coronavirus-vaccine-candidate-accelerates.
Doremalen NV, Lambe T, Spencer A, et al. Single dose ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccination reduces SARS-CoV-2 replication and prevents pneumonia in rhesus macaques. bioRxiv. May 13, 2020.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
Copyright (c) 2020 Array